Commons’ Infrastructure for Collective Life

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by Janice Figueiredo


Contents

BACKGROUND

The government of Ecuador has been envisioning a profound change in paradigm of the traditional understanding of “development” to that of “buen vivir”. This has been reflected in the last Constitution (December, 2008) and in the two National Plans for Good Living (2009-2013 and 2013-2017). The “buen vivir” vision requires a transformation of the productive matrix of the country to achieve the desired social and economic goals.


The FLOK Society is a research project of IAEN that has the support of the Ministry of Human Resource and Knowledge in Ecuador, which aims to create a legal, economic and social framework for the country, aligned with the philosophy and goals stated in the Plans of Good Living and in the Ecuadorian Constitution.


Under the direction of Michel Bauwens, a research team will work from November 2013 to April, 2014 in the FLOK project in 5 different streams, proposing a transition strategy into a society of free and open knowledge for Ecuador based on the principles of open networks, peer production and participatory and commons-oriented practices.


The research team will deliver a document that will be used in April, 2014 by 20-25 international experts and, along with the research team, these experts will produce 10 strategic documents proposing transition policies towards the good knowledge society. These documents will be presented to the Ecuadorian citizens through intensive participatory processes and later on to the Ecuadorian government.

SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH

This research stream will investigate how shared, open and commons infrastructures could promote sustainable ways of living for the collectivity. In this context, the research stream understands that physical infrastructures such as housing, healthcare and food are basic human needs and fundamental human rights, as proclaimed by the The Universal Declaration of Human Rights[1]. The research will examine how commons-oriented practices could enhance the availability and quality of such physical infrastructures in the public sphere.

The increasing concentration of populations in urban areas[2] brings urban sustainability as a major concern for governments. The research will seek successful open, shared and commons-based practices worldwide and in Ecuador to build and enhance sustainability in urban centers and will examine how they could be implemented, promoted and expanded through local, regional and national public policies.

The following areas will be investigated:

  • (1) Housing
  • (2) Health / Social Care
  • (3) Food / Urban Agriculture
  • (4) Collaborative Consumption
  • (5) Sustainability

The research will also examine collective practices that create and expand commons value, such as citizen urban prototyping and commons-oriented crowdfunding.

OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES

The orientation of the research is based on the following principles:

  1. inclusiveness and accessibility need to be addressed so fundamental rights can be extended to all.
  2. the current consumption trend is not compatible with the limited resources of the planet.
  3. there are available resources which could be used but that are not reaching those who need them.

Inclusiveness and accessibility

Basic needs for an adequate standard of living - housing, healthcare, food - are recognized by international and national laws as a fundamental right for every human being. This right has been stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights[1], in the 2008 Ecuadorian Constitution and in the Ecuadorian National Plan of Good Living.


Despite the central place of this right within the global legal system, millions are deprived of those basic needs. In 2010–2012, about 870 million people – or one in eight of the people in the world – did not consume enough food (FAO 2013)[3]. About a billion people are not adequately housed (UN-HABITAT 2009)[4]. Over 100 million people annually fall into poverty because they have to pay for health care (WHO 2008).[5]

The current consumption trend is not compatible with the limited resources of the planet (Global Footprint Network, 2013).[6]

The western culture of consumerism is unsustainable, as the currently available natural resources cannot provide all that is being demanded. This scenario is aggravated by the continuous growth of the population[7] and the ethical responsibility the humanity has to resolve the problem of exclusion and poverty. Both facts will considerably increase consumption levels and put an additional stress on an already critical situation of the planet and its resources.

This brings humanity to the consumption dilemma of how to provide good living to those currently excluded and to the increasing population, while preserving the natural resources.

There are available resources which could be used but that are not reaching those who need them

According to Oxfam International, there is enough food grown in the world for everyone in the planet (Oxfam International 2009)[8]. There are more than five times as many vacant homes in the U.S. as there are homeless people (Amnesty International USA 2011)[9]. In Spain, twenty percent of the houses are vacant (Abellán 2013)[10]. Over 700,000 homes in England are empty, and around 270,000 of those have been empty for over 6 months (Department for communities and local Government UK 2013)[11].


Ten million items of furniture are thrown away in the UK every year, while three million of these items could be easily re-used; more could be repaired. Over six million electrical items are thrown away every year in the UK. It is estimated that over half of them are still working or could easily be repaired. (Bulky Waste 2013)[12].


Taking into account these principles, the research will be looking into public policies that favor distribution and accessibility, as well as sustainable alternatives to traditional consumption.

METHODOLOGY

This work consists of an open research dynamic having a series of different actions to complement, validate and enrich the others. This stream understands “open research dynamic” as a process where the research remains open for participation and contribution from other researchers interested and knowledgeable in the related fields of the investigation. “Open research dynamic” is also understood as a process where the actions performed, material collected and other activities related to the development and progress of the research will be made available to the public, so individuals will be able to comment, make suggestions and contribute to the advancement and improvement of the research while it is being carried out.

The research stream believes that, by enabling the collective intelligence of a group of co-researchers through an open process, a better quality of knowledge can be provided and superior research outcomes can be produced.

Some of the actions of the research include: data collection, institutional validation, field research, interaction with local and global experts, analysis and recommendation and global community input/validation.


Data Collection

This investigation will make use of several qualitative data collection methods. This will consist of 1) data gathering of worldwide, state-of-the-art information on the fields defined on the scope of the research; data provided from interactions with other researchers 2) analysis of official Ecuadorian documents (2008 Constitution, Plans of Good Living, Organic Laws and other), meetings with Ecuadorian government officials, NGOs, associations and civil society in general, visits to the field for real case studies, as a means to understand the Ecuadorian reality.


Institutional Support

The research will look for stated needs on the fields of this research mainly through: the 2008 Ecuadorian Constitution, the National Plans of Good Living and the Organic Laws.


Interaction with local experts

Throughout the research we will be meeting with government officials, NGOs, associations, civil society in general, to understand the Ecuadorian context, its problems and needs, from different possible points of views. The research will also be looking for existing Ecuadorian successful stories that could be replicated, expanded and/or scaled.


Interaction with global experts

This investigation needs the help of the global community of commoner’s, researchers and experts on the fields being researched to enhance its knowledge-base and quality. This research stream is particularly interested and will be looking at benchmark solutions that could be presented as examples to be applied in Ecuador, particularly case-studies that illustrate and show the technical and economic feasibility of proposed solutions.


Field investigation

We will be visiting some ongoing NGO’s Ecuadorian projects as a means to have a live experience and interact directly with producers of solutions and better understand faced problems.


Analysis and Recommendations

Based on the data collected, worldwide and locally, from documentation, meetings and visits, the research will be analysing the feasibility, applicability and adaptability of benchmark solutions to Ecuador and will recommend proposals adapted to the local context.


Global community input/validation

We will be periodically publishing the advancements of the research at the FLOK Society wiki, so the community (Ecuadorian and global) can make comments, suggestions and recommendations on the advancement of the research. This interaction with the global community will be a means to improve the research and make necessary adjustments.


PLAN OF ACTIVITIES

There are different aspects involved in the research, which are stated below:

Introductory Phase

This phase comprises

1) the definition of the scope of the research;

2) an evaluation of how the Ecuadorian national plans (2009-2013 ; 2013-2017) considers policies for the domains of the research; and

3) the identification of key experts and practitioners in the various domains of the research, both outside and inside Ecuador.

Global Research Phase

In this phase the research will be looking for

1) principles, goals and objectives as proposed by FLOK communities;

2) successful implementations outside of Ecuador;

3) the most interesting experiments outside of Ecuador; and

4) policy frameworks and implementations outside of Ecuador

Ecuadorian Research Phase

In this phase the research will be looking at

1) surveying ecuadorian resources and development to build the new P2P national infrastructure;

2) look for principles, goals and objectives as proposed by FLOK communities in Ecuador;

3) look for successful implementations inside Ecuador;

4) look for the most interesting experiments inside Ecuador;

5) look for policy frameworks and implementations inside Ecuador.

Policy Formulation Phase

In this phase the research will

1) Provide a synthetic overview of the research results

2) Provide visually effective presentation material

3) Provide a synthetic overview of constructive proposals and policy formulations to be incorporated in the strategic documents


STATE OF THE RESEARCH

Analysis of the Ecuadorian National Plan of Good Living (2013-2017)

The plan recognises that all individuals have equal rights for decent housing, with access to basic services and that there should be mechanisms to protect housing from the speculations of the market. It proclaims the need of a healthcare system that contemplates universal care, that stimulates preventive care and which brings traditional and alternative medicine into the National Health System.

In regards to the area of food, the plan indicates the need to strengthen family and peasant farming, the need to promote fair and alternative trade of crops through mechanisms of the solidarity economy. It points out the importance of stimulating the use of healthy food to promote good health, indicating the value of producing and consuming traditional crops to achieve that. It also emphasises the importance of strengthening trade areas of organic food.

The plan stresses the need to promote patterns of conscious, sustainable and efficient consumption that remain within the limits of the planet, claiming the importance of changing the patterns of consumption of the population and of creating a culture of sufficiency, savings and minimal negative environmental impact generation.

The National Plan indicates the strengthening of citizen participatory process and decision making as an objective and indicates the design and implementation of mechanisms of citizen participation as a means to create opportunities of dialogue and cooperation.

Annex A contains a detailed list of the identified policies and strategic guidelines per each substream that could be potentially met through open, shared and commons-oriented practices.

Key experts and practitioners in the domains to be considered by this stream

We identified the following key experts in the different areas of this stream who could potentially provide advice and data for the research:


1. Housing

  • Fellowship for Intentional Communities
  • UN-Habitat
  • Baugruppen
  • Maka Suarez (Ecuador)

2. Health Care / Social Care

  • Seikatsu Club

3. Food / Urban Agriculture

  • Slow Food International
  • Oxfam
  • José Luis Vivero Pol
  • Slow Food Ecuador
  • Circuito de ferias orgánicas de Pichincha
  • Fernando Rosero Garcés (Cafolis)
  • Confederación Intercultural Campesina Amaru (FEI, FENOCIN, CNE-ELOY ALFARO, AMARU, AMAE, FEDOMEG, FENACOPEC, CONASA)

4. Collaborative Consumption

  • Neal Gorenflo, shareable.net
  • Mira Luna, shareable.net
  • Antonin Léonard, OuiShare
  • Olivier Schulbaum, Goteo
  • Sharing Cities Network
  • Co-sufficiency and DIY
  • Pantxo (San Roque market project)

5. Sustainability

  • François Houtart (advice on transition stratégies)
  • representative of the city of Freiburg (the green city)
  • Transition Towns
  • Leslie Frodsham Lukacs (recycling)
  • Pueblos en Transición (Ecuador

6. Money

  • Heloisa Primavera
  • Bernard Lietaer
  • Joaquim de Melo (Banco Palmas
  • Pedro Paez, ex-ministro Economía Ecuador 2007-2008
  • Cooperativa la Victoria (Movimiento de monedas complementarias). Contacto: Marlon Ortiz

7. Indigenous

  • Fenocin - Confederación Nacional de Organizaciones campesinas, indígenas y negras
  • Fundación Pachamama
  • Sofía Zaragocin
  • Centro Tinkunakuy de pensamientos y culturas andinas
  • Mayo Fuster (commons researcher interested in enhancing indigenous and women’s involvement in political processes - indicated by Jorge Andrés)

8. Commons-creation collective practices

  • Murilo Farah, Rio+ (citizen prototyping)
  • Ruben Zavala, infodesarrollo

Meetings held

A series of meetings have been conducted with Ecuadorian government officials, with civil society associations and academia. Exchanging with people are crucial for understanding the local context and get to know real, practical examples, where commons-oriented knowledge could be applied


Meetings with NGOs, associations and civil society


- Yasunisí Collective (a group comprising 7 different associations). The research team will be conducting at least 3 field visits to existing projects recommended by the collective with the objective of and enhancing local/global contacts for the provision of solutions to those projects.

- Cafolís (Centro Andino para la Formación de Líderes Sociales ) , on the thematics of family agriculture, seeds protection and the preservation of ancestral/indigenous knowledge.

- DiablUma

- Red Infodesarrollo


Meetings with government officials

- meeting with Superintendencia de Control del Poder de Mercado - the research team will be co-organizing with them a state/civil society international seminar in January involving global and local experts

- Meeting with Minister of Social Inclusion and staff. Synergies were identified in the areas of the co-design of solutions, where service receivers would be, along with other experts, protagonists of the design of solutions used by them (exemple: health care, child care).

- Meetings with SENESCYT staff and preparation of suggestions and policy recommendations for the National Policy for a Social Knowledge Economy.

- Initiated contact with director of Superintendencia de Economia Popular y Solidaria on how to potentially empower “catadores” through open recycling technology. A current bottleneck to empower these workers is the needed amount of money and infrastructure to process recycled material collected by them.

Meetings with Academia

- meeting with PhD researchers (Pantxo, Maka Suárez, David and others) at IAEN to find possible synergies of mutual works.


Ongoing exchanges with local and global experts:

Commons-oriented material

- Wolfgang Hoeschele and Helene Finidori (Commons Abundance Network): use of NORA knowledge base (http://commonsabundance.net/wiki/nora-needs-organizational-forms-and-resources-for-abundance) as a repository of commons-oriented material for the research.


Housing

- Maka Suárez (Ecuadorian, her PhD is related to housing in Ecuador)


Food Systems

- José Luis Vivero Pol : Food as a Commons

- Miguel Altieri (indicated by Juan Fernando VillaRomero, from the investigator’s list. To be contacted) - food sovereignty

- Cafolis / Fernando Rosero / Zavier Escobar: family agriculture, food sovereignty, biodiversity protection.


Urban Commons

- Michel Mehaffy (researcher, PhD candidate at Delft University of Technology): urban regeneration through P2P approaches

- Marco Casagrande: urban acunpulcture: biological and social restoration of existing cities/ Third Generation Cities


Rural Commons-

Fran Quiroga - Commons mountains in Galicia as a collective property alternative.


Sustainability

- Santiago Galindo: Ecuadorian doing a Master’s in Sustainability in Australia, interested in the areas of permaculture, sustainable intentional communities, education, urban issues, food, etc. Would like to get involved with the project.

- Fernanda Soliz (Acción Ecológica): waste management

- Richard Nelson: expertise on a solar roof technology that directs energy to food and water production. Works

Communities, complementary, social and alternative currencies

- Marc Gauvin

- Chris Cook


Indigenous/Traditional knowledge issues

- Ruth Moya, Ecuadorian scholar expert in indigenous matters (met her at Cafolis)

- Diego Velasco & Cliff Cáceresmay help with indigenous issues after March 2014

- Ruth Amarilis Rodriguez Sotomayor (recommended by Cliff Cáceres Salguero

- Cafolis / Fernando Rosero / Zavier Escobar : on the preservation of ancestral/traditional knowledge

Other

- Bruno Fuser: Brazilian, spontaneously volunteered to review materials written in Portuguese


Seminar on P2P and the Commons

On December, 19th 2013, an introductory 4-hour class on the concepts of P2P and the Commons was given to 19 students. The following concepts were discussed:

  • The Commons
  • Collective Intelligence
  • Peer-to-Peer
  • Peer Production
  • Peer Governance
  • Collaborative cities

More detailed material of the class can be seen in ANNEX B or at the link http://floksociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Janice-Figueiredo-Curso-P2P-y-el-Procomún.pdf

Other activities

- Researchers’ Interview to Red Infodesarrollo on the FLOK Society project (to be published)

- Informal talk (Conversatorio) on the “Knowledge Society”

- Interviewed Ruben Zavalla on the current state of workshops (to be published)

ANNEXES

ANNEX A

2013-2017 ECUADORIAN NATIONAL PLAN OF OF GOOD LIVING[13] GUIDELINES AND POLICIES RELATED TO THE STREM 5 RESEARCH


  • Housing
    • 3.9 Ensure the access to an adequate, safe and decent housing
      • 3.9.b. Encourage an offer of social housing that meets construction standards and ensure habitability, accessibility, permanence, integral security and access to basic services such as public transportation , education, health.
      • 3.9.c. Generate policy instruments and implement mechanisms to regulate and control rental housing and allow its fair access.
      • 3.9.d. Promote sustainable housing constructions and equipments which optimize the use of natural resources and use the power generation through alternative systems.
      • 3.9.e. Define, standardize, regulate and monitor compliance with quality standards for the construction of houses and their surroundings, to ensure habitability, accessibility, integral security and access to basic services for the population as a mechanism to reduce the quantitative deficit and qualitative housing.
      • 3.9.h. Build programs that facilitate the processes of legalizing the possession and ownership of land and housing, with following principles of safety and security.
      • 3.9.i. Promote equitable access to land for housing to the population, regulating and controlling the land market to prevent speculation.
  • Health / Social Care
    • 2.2 Ensure equality in access to health services and quality education to individuals and groups that require special consideration by the persistence of inequality, exclusion and discrimination
      • 2.2.a. Create and implement mechanisms and processes in public health services to ensure comprehensive free health care within the public health system across the country, based on the reception capacity of the territories and population density.
      • 2.2.e. Generate and implement mechanisms and affirmative action to ensure free health care and eliminate barriers to the access of health services, with emphasis on closing inequality gaps.
    • 2.10 Ensure protection and social security throughout the life cycle, independent of the employment status of the person
      • 2.10.b. Consolidate an inclusive, comprehensive and sustainable social protection system and security, which articulates the contributory and noncontributory systems, in a corresponsible manner with the public, community and private instruments.
      • 2.10.c. Optimize and implement a non-contributory social protection help for universal free access to health coverage and meet contingencies or conditions of vulnerability within a strategy of poverty eradication.
      • 2.10.e. Generate and implement mechanisms and incentives that facilitate and promote membership of the social security volunteers and people in various forms of work (voluntary, autonomous, peasant, autonomous fishers, self-employment, care and domestic unpaid), especially people in the popular and solidarity economy and people living in mobility.
    • 3.2 Expand prevention and promotion of health services to improve people’s the conditions of life and habits.
      • 3.2. a. Design and implement comprehensive mechanisms for health promotion to prevent risks throughout the life cycle, with emphasis on the social determinants of health.
      • 3.2.i. Promote health education as the main strategy for self-care and behavior change toward healthy lifestyles.
      • 3.2. n. Promote the creation of preventive medicine programs.
    • 3.3 Ensure free and universal health care
      • 3.3.a Consolidate and strengthen the comprehensive public health system in a coordinated and integrated manner to optimize the use of resources, based on the reception capacity of the territories.
      • 3.3.b. Guarantee gratuity and quality within the comprehensive public health system and their subsystems.
      • 3.3.e. Implement the system of referral and between institutions in the public and additional network at all levels , ensuring timely access and optimizing the use of all resources available in the country .
      • 3.3.f. Strengthen and consolidate the first level of health care as the entry point to the national health system to facilitate and coordinate the patient pathway in the system and allow the detection, early diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the network comprehensive public health .
      • 3.3.g. Strengthen comprehensive care in the second level of the national public health system and strengthen referral mechanisms .
      • 3.3.j. Design and implement the co-financing within the national health system , promoting the application of a single rate of medical and health services .
      • 3.3.k. Expand and strengthen regulation and control mechanisms of the pricing of health services of the complementary network .
      • 3.3.m. Promote the production , distribution and marketing of generic drugs.
      • 3.3.n. Ensuring access to and appropriate use of drugs in patients and health professionals who provide comprehensive services within the public health system , giving priority to the access and use of generic drugs .
      • 3.3.p. Promote the implementation of post-registration control system of food and medicine, to ensure their quality .
      • 3.3.q. Implement the new model of comprehensive health care in the territories, with cultural, geographical , gender and intergenerational relevance and human rights approach .
      • 3.3.s. Promote the training of specialists and technical professionals for the new model of care and comprehensive public health system throughout the territory.
    • 3.4 Strengthen and consolidate the intercultural health, incorporating traditional and alternative medicine to the National Health System
      • 3.4.a. Facilitate the inclusion and progressive adaptation of the cosmovision and the ancestral knowledge of various cultures in the provision of primary health services, preventive and curative approach with an emphasis on maternal and child services.
      • 3.4.c. Promote integration of an intercultural approach in education and training of human resources in health, promoting awareness, appreciation and respect for knowledge.
      • 3.4.d. Encourage the research and create normatives for the protection and incorporation of traditional and ancestral, community and grassroots knowledges in the public health system.
      • 3.4.e. Design and implement protocols to facilitate the progressive implementation of the ancestral and alternative medicine with a holistic vision in services and public health.
      • 3.4.f. Create mechanisms for the progressive incorporation of traditional and ancestral medicine agents in the integrated public health system.
      • 3.4.g. Promote participatory, inclusive and joint spaces of communities, peoples and nationalities in the construction, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of health services with territorial relevance.
  • Food / Urban Agriculture
    • 2.11 Ensure the rural Good Living and overcome social and territorial inequalities, promoting harmony between rural and urban spaces
      • 2.11.c. Establish and strengthen fair mechanisms of productive chain of family farming and alternative means of trade, promoting and strengthening partnership and food sovereignty with principles of equality, equity and solidarity.
      • 2.11.g. Improve productivity levels of family and peasant agriculture and other agro-productive systems through systems of production respecting the nature and cultural pertinence.
      • 2.11.i. Ensure access, use and exchange of local quality seeds throughout the national territory and promote the use of biotechnology with cultural and geographic relevance and protect food sovereignty.
      • 2.11.l. Expand and sustain the supply of agroecological products, handicrafts and goods originated from the popular and solidarity economy, strengthening mechanisms for direct trade to local, urban and external markets, particularly the commercial networks.
      • 2.11.m. Improve the management of rural areas of the country to ensure national food sovereignty, favoring organic food cultivation and traditional sustainable practices at different scales of agricultural production, from family and peasant agriculture to large monocultures..
    • 3.6 Promote, among population and society, habits of a healthy, nutritious diet to allow a decent standard of physical, emotional and intellectual development commensurate with their age and physical condition.
      • 3.6.f. Develop and implement mechanisms to encourage the population to have a healthy, nutritious and balanced diet for a healthy life and lower risks of malnutrition and eating disorders.
      • 3.6.k. Create media education programs to promote good eating habits.
      • 3.6.l. Encourage the provision of healthy food to public and private establishments deprived of a food supply.
      • 3.6.n. Articulate the local / national production, distribution and consumption to the nutritional needs of the population, to ensure the and permanent access of healthy and nutritious food, with social, cultural and geographical pertinence that ensures sustainability and food sovereignty.
      • 3.6.o. Encourage the production and consumption of traditional crops as an alternative to a healthy diet.
  • Collaborative Consumption
    • 7.9 Promote patterns of conscious, sustainable and efficient consumption that remain within the limits of the planet
      • 7.9.a Stimulate integrated processes and citizen campaigns to promote awareness and environmental ethics and practices of responsible and conscious consumption that create a culture of sufficiency, savings and generate minimal negative environmental impact .
      • 7.9.b. Design and implement incentive mechanisms for changing consumption patterns of the population, for reducing the sumptuous shopping, for reusing of assets, classification of waste and recycling materials .
      • 7.9.c. Promote education, training and communication about sustainable consumption practices through the use of information technology and social networks.
      • 7.9.d. Optimize recycling and sorting at the source of waste and reduce the use of unnecessary packaging, promoting reuse.
      • 7.9.e. Consolidate mechanisms of social and environmental producer responsibility, to be designed with the participation of consumers to reduce the environmental impact of consumption of goods and services.
      • 7.9.f. Incorporate environmental criteria in public procurement guidelines for decision making, with a vision of environmentally responsible and sustainable consumption .
      • 7.9.g. Establish public schemes, progressive and voluntary certification and labeling to inform consumers about the social, cultural and environmental values ​​of the products.
      • 7.9.h. Establish and strengthen trade areas of sustainable goods and services, particularly organic products with cultural relevance and fair trade criteria and social solidarity, in both urban and rural areas.
  • Sustainability
    • 2.12 Stimulate the creation of polycentric national human settlements, to promote territorial cohesion
      • 2.12.g. Promote and guide the consolidation of equitable and inclusive for Good Living settlements, optimizing the use of natural resources to ensure the sustainability and development of a balanced and complementary network under the provisions of the National Spatial Strategy.
      • 2.12.j. Establish mechanisms of coordination and responsibility between different levels of the government, based on the principles of subsidiarity and complementarity, for universal access to safe drinking water, sanitation, integrated waste management and other public goods and services, with emphasis on ensuring rights.
    • 3.8 Promote adequate conditions for the access to safe and inclusive habitat
      • 3.8.j. Promote new urban models and ecological human settlements, following the principles of sustainability, as models of urban planning and organisation and guarantees of a quality of life.
    • 1.7 Strengthen the National Decentralized System of Planification, with a rights’ approach
      • 1.7.e Design and implement mechanisms and tools for the effective participation of persons, communities, peoples and nationalities throughout the planning cycle.
      • 1.7.f Enhance corresponsibility in the planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of public policy.
      • 1.7.g Promote, among the population and the authorities, the idea of planning not only as an instrument of public policy, but as a process tool for political change.
    • 1.8 Build the plurinational and intercultural State of Good Living
      • 1.8.a. Strengthen mechanisms and spaces of articulation and dialogue between government and communities, peoples and nationalities, with an intercultural approach.
      • 1.8.c. Establish mechanisms in the various state entities so that the plurinational and intercultural approach is a constituent part of the generation of public policy and governance.
      • 1.8.d. Promote the provision of different public services, tailored to the worldview and approaches of peoples and nationalities.
      • 1.8.h. Establish mechanisms to ensure the rights of peoples and nationalities on the use of ancestral lands.
    • 1.9 Strengthen citizen participation in the processes of public policy and the state-society relationship
      • 1.9.a. Strengthen mechanisms for citizen participation to strengthen the joint state and society at all levels of government and state functions, and improve decision-making processes.
      • 1.9.b. Deepen training processes, training, dissemination, information and advocacy to promote citizen participation and build a democratic culture.
      • 1.9.d. Consolidate Sectoral Citizens Advice executive functions involving diverse populations, as the themes of equality, in the processes of construction and monitoring of public agendas.
      • 1.9.j. Promote the development of legislation related to the processes of consultation and participation of communities, peoples and nations, for cases in which decisions or authorizations of the State may affect the environment.
    • 1.12 Promote self-social organization and the construction of active citizenship that values ​​the common good.
      • 1.12.j. Create opportunities for dialogue and deliberation that promote critical reflective capabilities and cooperation of each individual.
      • 1.12.k. Raise public awareness on issues of solidarity and democracy to enable social cohesion, peaceful coexistence and individual empowerment.
    • 3.8.k. Create opportunities for citizen participation in decision-making regarding the planning and prioritization of local interventions.

ANNEX B

REFERENCES

  1. 1.0 1.1 Article 25 “(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.” http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/
  2. The United Nations report “2011 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects” indicates that more than half of the world population lives in urban areas and by 2050 this number will increase to 70%. http://esa.un.org/unup/pdf/WUP2011_Highlights.pdf
  3. FAO Statistical Yearbook 2013
  4. The Right to Adequate Housing, Fact Sheet n. 21. 2009. UN-HABITAT.
  5. The World Health Report 2008
  6. "Today humanity uses the equivalent of 1.5 planets to provide the resources we use and absorb our waste. This means it now takes the Earth one year and six months to regenerate what we use in a year. Moderate UN scenarios suggest that if current population and consumption trends continue, by the 2030s, we will need the equivalent of two Earths to support us.” (Global Footprint Network, 2013).
  7. The current world population of 7.2 billion is projected to increase by 1 billion over the next 12 years. United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision. 2013.
  8. http://www.oxfam.org/en/pressroom/pressrelease/2009-10-16/world-food-day
  9. In december, 2011 http://blog.amnestyusa.org/us/housing-its-a-wonderful-right/
  10. According to Antonio Abellán, from the “Departamento de Población, CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas), based in statistcal information provided by INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística) http://envejecimientoenred.wordpress.com/2013/05/16/una-de-cada-cinco-plazas-en-residencias-de-mayores-esta-vacante/
  11. Increasing the number of available homes. August, 2013 https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/increasing-the-number-of-available-homes/supporting-pages/empty-homes
  12. http://www.bulkywaste.org/partners/furniture-recycling-statistics
  13. http://www.buenvivir.gob.ec/